High Blood Pressure Has No Minimum

How tall is your child? How much does he or she weigh? Most parents can answer those questions easily. But here’s a tougher question: what is your child’s blood pressure?

High blood pressure, or hypertension, is often considered an adult health problem. But this serious condition is no longer adults-only.

“The number of children with high blood pressure is rising,” says Susan Mendley, MD, head of the Division of Pediatric Nephrology at the University of Maryland Children’s Hospital and an associate professor of pediatrics at the University of Maryland School of Medicine. “Left unchecked, high blood pressure can result in lifelong health complications including heart disease, stroke and kidney failure. Fortunately, small changes now can turn this trend around.”

What’s Normal?

For adults, 120/80 or lower is normal blood pressure and 140/90 or greater is high blood pressure. But for children, high blood pressure is determined differently.

“Children are not little adults,” says Dr. Mendley. “High blood pressure for children is defined as a blood pressure reading greater than the 95th percentile for their age, height and gender.”

It’s estimated that about 2 million kids in the U.S. have high blood pressure, and many of those children-and their parents- don’t know it.* That’s because high blood pressure, also known as the “silent killer,” has no symptoms. However, childhood high blood pressure often has a common clue: obesity.

Predicting hypertensions

A growing number of children are eating more, exercising less and weight in above their ideal weight range. As a result, obesity rates have been rising in the U.S. for the past two decades.**

“Obesity is one of the highest predictors of high blood pressure in children,” says Dr. Mendley. “It’s difficult for parents to tell on their own if their child has health risks related to weight.”

The American Academy for Pediatrics recommends screening children for high blood pressure annually starting at age 3. “It’s really important to keep up with your child’s annual checkup,” Dr. Mendley says. “Don’t wait until there is a problem. There are many small things that parents can do to prevent big problems later.”

To make an appointment with Dr. Mendley or the Nephrology team call 410-328-6749 or visit umm.edu/PediatricNephrology

*Source: The Journal of the American Medical Association

**Source: Centers for Disease control and Prevention

 

 

What Can Women Do to Prevent Early Menopause?

About Early Menopause

The average age a woman goes into menopause is 51. Menopause is considered abnormal when it begins before the age of 40 and is called “premature ovarian failure.” Common symptoms that come with menopause include hot flashes, night sweats, sleep problems, sexual issues, vaginal dryness, pain during sex, pelvic floor disorders (urine, bowel leakage, pelvic organ prolapse), losing bone mass, and mood swings.

Menopause is mostly genetically predetermined, which means you generally can’t do much to delay it from happening. What we can do is work to counter-balance or prevent the symptoms and effects that tend to develop during menopause.

What You Can Do

Women can do a lot of things to prepare themselves for changes that will come with menopause. These include modifying our lifestyles so we are eating a healthy diet and exercising regularly.

Diet and Exercise

Related to diet, women should look into their caloric intake and make adjustments like eating smaller meal portions, and eating a well-balanced diet that includes lots of fiber and protein and less carbohydrates. Avoid eating late at night or snacking, which means no eating two to three hours before bed time.

Take calcium and vitamin D supplements for bone health to prevent osteoporosis. Well-balanced food with decreased caffeine intake also helps to decrease night sweats.

Exercise is one of the most important and modifiable factors that all women must take advantage of. Cardio workouts including walking or jogging three times a week will boost your cardiovascular system and endurance, and also help you control your weight. It’s also important to do weight-bearing exercises regularly to build up bones and prevent osteoporosis.

Kegels

Kegel exercises can help prevent pelvic floor disorders (urine, bowel leakage, pelvic organ prolapse). Kegel exercises should ideally be done every day three times a day. Every woman needs to know how to do Kegel exercises properly. Unfortunately, many women think they do Kegel exercises when, in fact, they do not, because the muscles are hidden inside the body. Your physician should be able to help you with it. You can do long squeezes for 10 seconds, or fast squeezes. This helps to maintain strength and endurance of the pelvic muscles in order to prevent urinary or bowel leakages in the future.

Mental Health

If possible, I recommend having regular sex. It improves vaginal lubrication and helps to prevent vaginal dryness and pain with intercourse. It is also good for your overall mood.
Finally, every women should work on developing a positive attitude, and spending time in a healthy environment helps – for example, taking frequent walks in a park or whatever makes you feel good; finding a way to de-stress and/or control any stress in your life. This will improve your mental health.

Hormone Therapy

Hormonal treatment for early menopause and menopause has been out of favor because of concerns with breast cancer, cardiovascular disease, and stroke. With that said, it is still gold-standard treatment especially for hot flashes and night sweats. Hormonal therapies could offer significant benefits to women especially those going through early menopause. Talk to your doctor about what is right for you.

Fertility

A woman going through early menopause is still fertile. Unless you don’t have periods at all anymore, there is still a risk that you can get pregnant, so it’s important to use some form of contraception to avoid pregnancy.

Tatiana V. Sanses, MD, is Assistant Professor of Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery at University of Maryland School of Medicine and Director of Outreach Program for Urogynecology at University of Maryland Medical System.

 

 

Answering Your Colon Cancer Questions with Dr. Jiang

A new study released by the National Cancer Institute shows colon and rectal cancers have increased dramatically and steadily in young and middle-age adults in the United States over the past four decades. Dr. Yixing Jiang, a Medical Oncologist at the University of Maryland Greenebaum Comprehensive Cancer Center, answers all the questions you’re now asking yourself about colon cancer.

Q. What are the risk factors for colon cancer?

A. The risks for developing colon cancer are: obesity; insulin resistance diabetes, red and processed meat; tobacco; alcohol; family history of colorectal cancer; certain hereditary syndromes (such as familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP)); certain genetic mutations (APC mutation); inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease); being a patient long-term immune suppression (transplant patients) and a history of abdominal radiation.

Q. Who had always been traditionally has always been at risk for colon cancer?

A. Most colorectal cancer happens sporadically. But patients with familial syndromes (FAP or Lynch syndrome), inflammatory bowel disease, certain genetic mutations, a family history of colon cancer or a history of polyos are at higher risk of developing colon cancer.

Q. What’s the best way to protect myself against colon cancer?

A. To reduce the risk of colon cancer, exercise regularly; eat less red meat, eand eat a diet high in fresh vegetables, fruits, fibers, vitamin D, and omega 3 fatty acids.  Asprin and NSAIDs been shown a degree of protection against colon cancer. Of course, the best way of preventing colon cancer is screening with a colonoscopy.

Q. What’s the best screening tool for colon cancer?

A. The screening guidelines varies depending on the recommending agencies. For example, the Center for Disease Control recommends the following: For average general population, the recommendation is to start screening colonoscopy every 10 years at age of 50; fecal occult blood test annually and flex sigmoidoscopy every 3 years. The US Preventive Services Task Force recommends screening between the ages of 50 and 75.

The most used screening test for colon cancer is a colonoscopy.

Q. Is colon cancer treatable? What’s the best treatment options?

A. Colon cancer is a very treatable disease if discovered early. For stage I cancer, surgery cures more than 90% of patients. For patients with a more advanced stage cancer, surgery alone is usually not enough. Additional chemotherapy is generally required to increase the chance of a cure. Today, with more therapies available and better surgical techniques, we are able to cure close to 30% patients with stage IV disease.

For more information on diagnosing and treating colon cancer, please visit UMGCCC’s website, umgccc.org. 

Joint Replacement Q&A with Dr. Theodore Manson

Theodore Manson, MD is an Orthopaedic Surgeon at the University of Maryland Medical Center and an Associate Professor of Orthopaedics at the University of Maryland School of Medicine.

Dr. Manson specializes in hip and knee replacements and orthopaedic trauma. Below he answers the most common questions about joint replacement.

 

Q. What advances have there been in joint replacements including new technologies, changes in patient-management and rehabilitation?

A. One significant advancement in the last 10 years has been around pain management and early recovery protocols. The goal is to minimize the amount of narcotics patients require after surgery. Today, we manage pain through many different types of medicines in addition to narcotics. There’s been a lot of success recently with joint (intra-articular) injections of anesthetic around the hip or knee joint at the time of surgery. This injection limits the amount of pain patients have when they first wake up from surgery. We know that if you limit that first pain sensation, it helps with the whole pain management process going forward.

Another significant advancement is infection prevention. Patients’ skin is now pre-operatively prepped with the antiseptic and disinfectant chlorhexidine both at home prior to surgery and at the hospital as well. In addition, we optimize patients’ nutrition and health pre-operatively. These two things have drastically cut down on infection rates. We did not use to address patient nutrition. Now, we assess patients’ nutritional status before surgery. If a patient is at a higher risk for nutritional deficiencies – those with chronic illness, diabetes or poor appetite, we then work in conjunction with a nutritionist so their infection rates are lower.

Borrowing from the aviation industry, there have been substantial improvements to patient safety in the hospital postoperatively as well.  Standardized protocols, safety checklists and quality control monitoring have dramatically reduced untoward events in joint replacement patients.

Q. What new innovations in joint replacement surgery (hardware and techniques) are noteworthy and why?

A. There is a lot of marketing material on the internet regarding various joint replacement approaches, minimally invasive surgery, robotic surgery and use of custom hip and knee replacement parts.  It is important to realize that none of these things has been shown to be of any benefit. When considering joint replacement, choose a surgeon who performs a high volume of hip and knee replacement surgeries and who you get along with well on a personal level.

While there haven’t been any substantial innovations with implants in the last five years, we do have long-term data on our current implants and techniques that shows them to be functioning extremely well.

Q. Who should get a joint replacement? What factors should a person consider? How should a potential patient decide?

A. In general, joint replacement is an elective procedure. If the patient is falling due to their hip or knee arthritis, it can be a very dangerous situation, so falls are an indication they should go ahead with a joint replacement. If a person is no longer able to climb stairs, if the hip/knee pain keeps him/her up at night, or if s/he is constantly dependent on an assistive device like a cane, then I think they should strongly consider a joint replacement. For others with less severe symptoms, a joint replacement may still be of great benefit to them, but they should consider surgery when the time is right and shouldn’t feel pressured into a surgical option.

Q. What should a patient expect?

A. Once they have scheduled the surgery, most patients undergo pre-habilitation prior to the joint replacement. Many patients find it useful to go to a preoperative joint class at the hospital where they’re going to have the surgery. This helps to alleviate anxiety about the procedure and educate them on what is to come. For those who are substantially debilitated preoperatively, going to prehab (physical therapy) to strengthen the operative leg is helpful and helps us foresee any challenges that may arise postoperatively.

If you have a body mass index (BMI) of 40 or greater, you should delay joint replacement until you can get below 40. This is because infection rates increase substantially for people who have a BMI of 40 or greater.

Q. Does the type of implant used depend on patient activity and age? How?

A. In the past, different implants were used based on age, but for the vast majority of surgeons we use the same type of implants no matter the age. Occasionally patient with poor bone quality will require different implants, but usually we use the same regardless of age or activity level.

Q. What is the target recovery period and regimen for various categories of patients?

A. Patients see the majority of their improvement six to 12 weeks after surgery. They reach their maximum improvement six to 12 months after hip/knee surgery.

Q. What is the lifespan of replacement joints and do you expect the lifespan to grow longer soon?

A. The lifespan of replacement joints have a 1-percent-per-year failure rate, so with 20 years, you have a 20 percent risk of needing the joint replacement redone. I expect this will grow longer as we get better at preventing infection rates. If you are over 60 years old, the odds are you’ll probably never need to have the joint redone.

Q. Have risk factors (infections, failures, etc.) declined or increased (and for whom)?

A. Risk factors have declined because of more critical evaluation and optimization of risk factors for infection around the time of surgery.

Q. Are revision surgeries more or less common these days and why? Do you expect that to change? How and why?

A. Revision surgeries are more common these days simply because of the number of people who have gotten a joint replacement is increasing, and the number of baby boomers having joint replacement is increasing. I expect the number to continue to go up just because the number of people having a joint replacement is going up.

To make an appointment with Dr. Manson or one of our other orthopaedic specialists, please call 410-448-6400.  For more information on joint replacement or other orthopaedic issues, check out the University of Maryland Orthopaedics’ website.

What To Ask Your Doctor (and Why) When You’ve Been Diagnosed With Lung Cancer

Heather Mannuel, MD, MBA is an Assistant Professor of Medicine at the University of Maryland School of Medicine and a Medical Oncologist at the University of Maryland Greenebaum Comprehensive Cancer Center.  Below are a few questions she says to ask your doctor when you’ve been diagnosed with lung cancer, and why they’re important to ask.

What kind of lung cancer is this? Lung cancers are divided into small cell and non-small cell types, and the treatment is very different for each of these.

What is my stage? The stage helps to give information on whether the cancer is only in the lung or whether it has spread outside the lung to the lymph nodes or to other parts of the body.  This is very important in guiding the next steps of treatment.

What kind of treatment is available for my kind of cancer?  Should I see a surgeon?  Should I see a radiation oncologist? Depending on what type of cancer you have and what stage your cancer is, you may benefit from surgery or radiation.  Some patients only receive one type of treatment, and others receive several types in sequence.  Your oncologist can discuss the options in detail with you.

What kind of chemotherapy treats this lung cancer?  Chemotherapy is sometimes given with radiation, or it may be given alone.  Often two or more different chemotherapy drugs are combined together to treat lung cancer most effectively.

What kind of side effects does the chemotherapy cause?  Although chemotherapy can cause many symptoms including nausea, diarrhea and appetite loss, there are excellent medications available today to help combat these side effects and help patients feel as well as possible during their treatment.

Is immunotherapy an option for my cancer?  Immunotherapy helps your own immune system target and fight the cancer; it is being used in a variety of different cancers today, including lung cancers, with good results.  Your oncologist can discuss whether you are eligible for this kind of therapy, when and how it fits in with standard chemotherapy, and the potential side effects.

I’m interested in adding alternative therapies to my chemotherapy; is this possible?  Many patients feel that therapies such as acupuncture and massage allow them to be more relaxed and comfortable during their treatment.  Some vitamins and herbal supplements are safe to combine with chemotherapy, but some may cause dangerous side-effects.  Before you start any type of alternative therapy, always talk with your oncologist to make sure it’s safe.

Are there any clinical trials that apply to my case?  Trials may provide an opportunity for you to be treated with drugs or other therapies that are not yet on the market but that may ultimately become standard cancer treatments in the future.  Most large cancer centers participate in clinical trials or have an association with other hospitals and centers that run trials.  You can also access https://clinicaltrials.gov/ which is run by the National Institutes of Health and which is a registry of available clinical trials across the United States for a variety of different diseases.

How will I feel during treatment?  Can I still work and take care of my children?  Although many side effects are able to be controlled today, some patients will have treatments that require them to be away from work for several weeks at a time, or that leave them fatigued and unable to maintain their normal work and child care schedule.  Your oncology team can work with a social worker or case manager to help you find solutions to these problems.

What kind of results do you expect from this treatment?  Is this curable?  This is a difficult and scary question, but it is very important to discuss this so you can plan ahead for you and your family.  Although not always the case, even incurable cancers can sometimes be treated and controlled successfully for several years.

Learn more about the Lung Cancer Service at UMGCCC by clicking here.

Winter Wives’ Tale

The University of Maryland Children’s Hospital sets the record straight…

Put on your hat since you lose most of your body heat through your head.”
This is not necessarily true! Your body heat escapes from any exposed area- so if you had on snow pants and a T-shirt and you forget your hat and jacket, the most amount of heat would escape through your arms- since that would be the largest exposed part of your body. Putting on winter accessories such as hats, mittens and scarves is still a very good idea to avoid the outside dangers of frostbite and hypothermia.

You will get sick if you go outside with wet hair.”
This is another winter wives’ tale. While your kids may be cold, they won’t actually catch a cold by venturing outdoors with a wet head. Germs are spread by people, and temperature simply doesn’t play a part.

 

Occupational Therapist Brings Holiday Cheer to NICU with Photo Shoot

img_9300-3Just before the holiday season, Lisa Glass, an occupational therapist in The Drs. Rouben and Violet Jiji Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) set up a Christmas photo shoot to show off the festive side of some of our tiniest patients.

Glass, who enjoys photography in her spare time, developed the idea for the photo-shoot as a “cute way to give some nice holiday photos to parents”. Since NICU babies are often among the sickest children in the hospital, and need round the clock medical care, it can be difficult for parents to appreciate the traditional joys of having a newborn. Especially during the first few critical months of life, this can include newborn pictures. Glass and her coworkers wanted to be able to “highlight how beautiful [these] babies are,” and give parents a view of their child in a more upbeat and positive light.

img_9142-3After work hours, Glass and two physical therapy coworkers in the University of Maryland Department of Rehabilitation Services, Laura Evans and Carly Funk, went from room to room, and for four and a half hours, photographed over 30 babies. Following the photography session, Glass edited her pictures, emailed them to parents, and even printed a few copies to surprise parents in their babies’ rooms. Following the photo shoot, she received many happy emails thanking her for what she had done. But for Glass, going above and beyond to show compassion and joy was an easy feat.

“For me, it was a pleasure to interact with the babies and the parents”, said Glass. “Parents are used to seeing their children as sick patients, not as beautiful babies. It’s important to see your patients not just as patients, but as people, too.”

Glass also emphasized the importance of teamwork in this endeavor.

“I wouldn’t have been able to do this without [Laura and Carly’s] help the whole way through.” This NICU trio showcases the importance of working together to bring some extra joy to UMMC.

Glass’ photography serves as a great reminder to see patients as the people they are, and not simply for the medical treatment they are receiving. Although these babies may have breathing tubes and cords surrounding them, they are also enveloped in a multitude of love and support.

trilpets-single-photos



Building Better Breastfeeding Awareness at UMMC

breastfeeding2Breastfeeding is recognized as the best nutritional source for healthy infants. Unfortunately, breastfeeding rates in Baltimore city are well below the national average, so the University of Maryland Medical Center acknowledges the need to focus efforts on breastfeeding practices and do more to educate and support mothers within the community.

After a thorough evaluation, UMMC kicked off a commitment to embark on the journey to become a Baby Friendly designated hospital. UMMC follows the “10 Steps to Breastfeeding success” as outlined by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF).   The “10 Steps” involve all aspects of breastfeeding and include the efforts which begin in the pre-natal period and go beyond birth and delivery until breastfeeding is well established.

A mother’s choice to breastfeed is heavily influenced by education, cultural norms and how well the mother is supported in learning to breastfeed.  Although breastfeeding is a natural process, its success does take some practice and support.  UMMC saw the need to do more to support mothers from the prenatal phase through labor and delivery and beyond hospitalization in those early post-partum weeks.   In cohesive efforts to influence breastfeeding rates, UMMC nursing and medical staff have partnered with affiliated pre-natal clinics, called B’More Health Babies, as well as the Baltimore City Health Department and University of Maryland School of Nursing colleagues to approach breastfeeding education and support across the continuum of care.

UMMC nursing and provider staffs are in the process of completing specialty training on breastfeeding. This is an endeavor that includes all staff who works with nursing mothers with the highest level of training demanded of maternal/newborn nurses who all have completed 20 hours of didactic and practical training on breastfeeding.   Pediatric nurses, midwives, obstetricians, pediatricians, family practice providers, medical assistants and nursing assistants also receive additional training on how to support nursing mothers – a topic glossed over up to now in most nursing and medical school curricula.

Onsite Lactation Support

University of Maryland Medical Center has expanded lactation support to include six days a week of onsite coverage, a telephone hotline, and lacatationsupport@umm.edu email for questions and advice.  UMMC nursing and provider staffs are committed to extending this support to community mothers with the kick off of both inpatient breastfeeding support groups held weekly on the Mother Baby unit and a monthly community breastfeeding support group free to the public within the Family Medicine clinic.  UMMC is also committed to supporting our staff with the employee lactation lounge located on first floor of the Weinberg building where hospital grade breast pumps are available for our own UMMC community of nursing mothers.

Having health professionals, sudavis-and-boypport persons, peer mentors and others who can assist in teaching and reinforcing skills are critical to maternal success.   In partnering with providers, advocacy groups and agencies, UMMC staff are working to ensure patients are provided the education and resources needed for success.

For more information on UMMC’s lactation support programs, email us at lactationsupport@umm.edu .

University of Maryland Ear, Nose & Throat Team Preparing, Fundraising for Annual Volunteer Medical Mission

The University of Maryland Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) team is gearing up for their next volunteer medical mission trip – and they’re hoping you can help them help more people. The team, led by head and neck surgeons Rodney Taylor, MD and Jeffrey Wolf, MD, has begun fundraising for their March 2017 medical mission to Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

Fiji Team

The ENT Team during last year’s mission trip to Fiji

Every year, the ENT team travels to different under-served parts of the world to provide their services free of charge. The crew is dedicated to providing world-class care to those in need. They pay 100 percent of their own way, including airfare, shipping costs for their equipment and the cost of purchasing additional supplies not available onsite.

This year, the funds raised will also pay for patient transportation. While there is one hospital in Ho Chi Minh City, many Vietnamese citizens living in the rural hills don’t have easy access to health care. In fact, some of them have never even been to a hospital. This year, the ENT team will be covering the funds to get patients from their homes to the hospital to receive the care they need.

In Vietnam, Dr. Taylor says there is a higher rate of cleft lip and cleft palate, so they expect to see a lot of patients suffering from those conditions. The team also is planning to treat many patients with goiters (enlarged thyroid), parotid tumors (in the salivary glands), sinal nasal masses and even some cancers.

“It’s an area where we can make the biggest impact during our time there,” Dr. Taylor said. “We will also get the chance to soak in the culture, and learn valuable lessons from the patients we serve.”

Another huge win for the team, and the patients in turn, is the addition of a pediatric anesthesiologist to this year’s crew. That means the team will able to operate on children needing surgery, not just adults.

The ENT team is working with the Project Vietnam Foundation, a nonprofit humanitarian organization working to create sustainable pediatric health care in Vietnam, while providing free health care and aid to impoverished rural areas across the country.

All of the ENT mission trips are made possible through donations. If you cannot make it to the happy hour, donations are welcome on the Maryland ENT Mission website: http://www.marylandentmissions.org/donate.


­­­­Last year, the team traveled to Fiji for their annual medical mission. They performed 15 surgeries and saw 150 patients before the island was rocked by Cyclone Winston. Learn more here.

Remembering Dr. R Adams Cowley: A Revolutionary & Pioneer of Trauma Medicine


Dr. Cowley in the old CCRU

Dr. Cowley (center) instructing in the old CCRU

Dr. R Adams Cowley passed away 25 years ago today, but his contributions will live on forever in the form of thousands of lives saved.

R Adams Cowley, MD, a cardiothoracic surgeon, was the founder of United States’ first trauma center, University of Maryland R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center, and the Maryland EMS System. He revolutionized trauma medicine and is responsible for the development of the “Golden Hour” concept. As Dr. Cowley explained in an interview: “There is a golden hour between life and death. If you are critically injured you have less than 60 minutes to survive. You might not die right then; it may be three days or two weeks later — but something has happened in your body that is irreparable.”


Drs. Gens and Cowley

Dr. Cowley (left) with fellow trauma surgeon Dr. Gens in 1983

“R Adams Cowley was a pioneer, a man of immense vision and the father of American trauma care systems,” Dr. Thomas Scalea, Shock Trauma Physician-in-Chief, said. “At a time when we take organized trauma care for granted, it is important to remember that none of this would have happened without him and a few others who refused to take no for an answer. They fought the political and medical battles to demonstrate that organized trauma care saves lives. I am privileged to continue his legacy.”


Open Heart Surgery

A Baltimore Sun photo shows Dr. Cowley performing open-heart surgery on a 2-year-old boy

After many years of research and discussion, in 1958, the Army awarded Dr. Cowley a contract for $100,000 to study shock in people. He developed the first clinical shock trauma unit in the nation; the unit consisted of two beds (later four beds). By 1960, staff was trained and equipment was in place.

In 1968, Dr. Cowley negotiated to have patients brought in by military helicopter to get them to the shock trauma unit more quickly. After much discussion with the Maryland State Police, the first med-evac transport occurred in 1969 after the opening of the five-story, 32-bed Center for the Study of Trauma.

In 1970, Dr. Cowley expanded his dream, feeling that not a single patient should be denied the state-of-the-art treatment available at his trauma center in Baltimore. He envisioned a statewide system of care funded by the state of Maryland available to anyone who needed it.

Airport Drill

Dr. Cowley leads a drill at the airport

His dream became a reality with the intervention of former Governor Marvin Mandel. Governor Mandel became interested in Dr. Cowley’s program when a close friend was severely injured in a car crash. In 1973, the Governor issued an executive order establishing the Center for the Study of Trauma as the Maryland Institute for Emergency Medicine. The order simultaneously created the Division of Emergency Medical Services. Dr. Cowley was appointed as director.

Maryland had the first statewide EMS system, and it, like the Shock Trauma Center, has become a model worldwide. Countless lives have been saved due to Dr. Cowley’s vision.

r-adams-cowley-studentsWe thank you, Dr. Cowley, and will always remember your legacy.

400-victims-in-2-years

 

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