New Treatment for Breast Cancer Could Help Some Women Avoid Surgery

Most women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer typically have surgery to remove the tumor, followed by three to six weeks of radiation. But there’s an exciting new development in breast cancer treatment – a first-of-its kind radiation therapy system for early stage cancers that may cut the number of treatments to only a few days.

And, one day, the inventors say, it might even eliminate the need for surgery altogether for some patients.

It’s called the GammaPod, invented by scientists at the University of Maryland School of Medicine. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently cleared the way for the GammaPod to be used to treat patients with early stage breast cancer, along with surgery to remove the tumor.

A treatment machine that looks like a pod and uses gamma radiation, it has the power to hit a tumor with higher doses of radiation than standard radiation therapy and the precision to avoid damaging the rest of the breast and important organs such as the heart and lungs.

“The GammaPod has the potential to significantly shorten the treatment time to a few sessions or possibly even one treatment,” says inventor Cedric X. Yu, DSc, a physicist who is a clinical professor of radiation oncology. “We envision that one day we’ll be able to neutralize a tumor with a high dose of focused radiation instead of removing it with a scalpel.

“This approach would spare patients the negative side effects of surgery and prolonged radiation treatments, significantly improving their quality of life.” Dr. Yu says.

With advances in imaging and better screening, most breast cancers are diagnosed at an early stage, when the tumor is confined to the breast or nearby lymph nodes but has not spread to distant parts of the body.

A few interesting facts about the GammaPod:

  • It targets a tumor with thousands of precisely focused beams of radiation from 36 rotating sources
  • The patient is treated lying on her stomach with her breast in a vacuum-assisted cup, which is attached to the treatment couch during treatment
  • The couch moves during treatment as radiation “paints” the tumor
  • Treatments take five minutes to 40 minutes

The GammaPod will be available to patients at the University of Maryland Medical Center in Baltimore, Md., in the spring of 2018 and at several other locations in the United States and Canada within a year.

Another Kind of Circulatory System

In the depths of the hospital, through doors that often go unnoticed by most employees, is a transportation system that plays a huge role in modern health care. The passengers are not people, although some are samples of people – blood samples, that is, secured in a “carrier” and on their way to the hospital lab. The carriers – cylindrical cartridges with a secure latch on each end — race all over the hospital through pneumatic tubes hidden deep behind the walls. Unit nurses can send samples to the lab for testing, or receive blood products and medications to administer to their patients.

Pneumatic tube systems have been used in communications, banking, health care and industry since the mid-1800s to move small things from one place to another much faster than a human could travel — even faster than a car. Digital communication has taken over the conveyance of messages, but when it comes to transporting an actual object across a hospital campus, the pneumatic tube still reigns supreme.

The pneumatic tube system at University of Maryland Medical Center (UMMC) is one of the most complex in existence, according to Pevco, the company that designed and installed it some 20 years ago at UMMC’s University Campus, and has updated and expanded it through the years  The last big upgrade was 2011, when UMMC added two additional miles of pipe, interchange rooms, 25 new pieces of equipment and 10 additional zones.

Before this system was installed, the hospital staff included couriers hired specifically to “run” blood products, lab samples, and pharmaceuticals. They were fast, but no match for the tube system once it was installed. It takes 15 minutes to walk from the two furthest points in the hospital, but only five minutes for a carrier in the tube system.

A pneumatic delivery system transports containers through tube networks using air pressure. The nerve center of the system is a computer that takes up so little space it only requires a small closet. When a nurse or lab technician enters a destination into one of the 99 stations throughout the hospital, the computer selects the quickest available route, waits until the route is clear, then uses vacuum to pull the carrier out of the station into the pipes.

The “whoosh” sound a carrier makes heading down a clear passageway is music to the ear of Richie Stever, CHFM, LEED AP, director of operations and maintenance at UMMC.

“The system is designed like a roadway system,” Stever said. “When the pipe  — think of it as a highway —  is clear, the carrier is lifted from the station with a motor that creates suction, and then it travels through the pipe until it reaches a diverter – like a highway interchange — switches roads, and then is moved with pressure via a motor until it reaches its final destination.”

There are 5.5 miles of pipe throughout the complex, with the average time for deliveries being less than five minutes. To create that kind of power, the tube system is backed by 22 blower motors that push and pull air through the pipes.  There are 22 zones the items can travel through, and 103 diverters. Diverters are used to make bridges from station to station. The diverter is placed at an intersecting point and changes the carrier’s path to a different tube. There are three interchange rooms in the system where the diverters are used to change the direction of the carriers.

The carriers are numbered cylindrical cartridges equipped with two latches on each end as well as foam padding to protect the contents during their trip – sometimes miles at a time.  There are 99 carrier stations throughout the hospital building, with seven in the Central Pharmacy, eight in the North Core Laboratory, seven in the South Core Laboratory, three in the Blood Bank and one at each nurses’ station.

When a carrier comes through to the station, a tone will sound to let those nearby know that a specimen or blood product has just come in. Those 99 stations generate more than 5,000 transactions per day at a speed of around 500 feet per second.

As with any complex machine, things can go wrong, but built-in features kick in to fix them. If a blower is off-line because of mechanical or electrical failure, another blower within the system can do the job. If a cartridge opens up en route and spills the contents, technicians use measurements to figure out where the spill or clog is  before deploying a special “squeegee” — more like a large sponge — that is as big as the inside of the tubes. The squeegee is sent through the tubes multiple times to clean up the spill.

“Twenty years ago, when we installed the first part of the tube system, we never imagined we would be able to send a thousand carriers in a day,” said Scott Kruelle, system operator for the tube system. “Now, we send more than 5,000 carriers a day.”

Spreading Thanksgiving Cheer with a Thanksgiving Meal Spread

Between prepping, cooking, cleaning and entertaining, Thanksgiving sometimes turns into a high-stress holiday rather than a time for giving thanks. This time of year is already stressful for families at University of Maryland Children’s Hospital (UMCH), who spend the holidays at the hospital instead of at home.

Members from the Chesapeake Bay Beach Club in Stevensville, Md. donated a Thanksgiving meal to all UMCH patients, families and staff members, to take one thing off of their plates for the holidays.

Amanda Ackermann, a first year Child Life graduate student at Towson University and a Child Life Scholar at UMCH, coordinated the donation. As part of her Child Life Scholar field study, she spends 20 hours a week providing and supervising developmentally appropriate activities for patients. She also organizes special events, implements new programming and manages donations.

Amanda (third from right) and the Chesapeake Bay Beach Club team

Amanda is also a banquet server at the Chesapeake Bay Beach Club, and she thought it was only natural to bring her two jobs together.

“I brought up the idea of giving back to the UMCH families, and the general manager, Dereck, was instantly on board to help,” Amanda said.

The initial idea, to donate homemade pies, grew into a full Thanksgiving meal. After putting in months of planning for the meal, the team decided they wanted to do even more! The entire management staff donated toys for all ages, which were distributed to children with their meals.

Many thanks to Chesapeake Bay Beach Club for making this Thanksgiving extra special!!

 

Frequently Asked Questions-Daylight Saving Time and Kids

Adjusting to daylight saving time can be tough on kids. Dr. Adam Spanier answers some common questions about easing the transition during the time change.

 

1) What are some ways to prep kids for daylight saving time?

Start to prepare in advance. First, encourage good bedtime routines and a good night’s sleep regularly. Second, ensure good sleep “hygiene.” Cut off electronics well before bed – the lights and stimulation can throw off our sleep cycle. Keep the lights low in the evening. Keep activities quieter. Third, you can gradually adjust bedtime ahead of the change – 10 minutes to 15 minutes a day. Fourth, be patient after the change, your child might be grumpier the next few days.

2) Should you change bed time rituals?
Bedtime rituals are important in certain age groups, so it would be best to keep them stable. However, they can move a little earlier prior to the daylight savings day to help prepare for the change.

3) Should you change the morning/breakfast routine?
Similar to bedtime, mealtime rituals are important in certain age groups, so it would be best to keep them stable. However, they can move a little earlier prior to the daylight savings day to help prepare for the change.

4) Do kids need more vitamins or other nutrients to combat the lack of sleep?
No. In general, a well-balanced diet provides all the vitamins and nutrients needed. There are no vitamins and nutrients that might make up for a good night’s sleep. It is also important to avoid caffeine, as using it can lead to negative health effects in children.

5) If all else fails, should you try an over-the-counter melatonin for kids?
Some people like melatonin because it is the same hormone that our bodies make in preparation for our sleep cycle. It is probably better to use your body’s hormones rather than take supplemental ones. Turning down the lights can help ramp up melatonin levels. If someone wants to use melatonin, it is best to ask the doctor for advice on dosing first.

6) Any special instructions for infants and newborns?
Infants and newborns adapt a little earlier because their schedules tend to be a little more flexible and more subject to change.

7) Is there a psychological aspect of losing an hour of sleep that the parents should be aware of?
The loss of an hour of sleep anytime can cause behavior changes in children. We sometimes see inattention, restlessness, and other symptoms similar to those seen in ADHD when children are not getting enough sleep. Too little sleep can also lead to depression. It can also affect appetite.

Adam Spanier, MD

Associate Professor of Pediatrics, University of Maryland School of  Medicine; Division Head, General Pediatrics, University of Maryland Children’s Hospital
The Division of General Pediatrics at University of Maryland  Children’s Hospital offers continuing comprehensive care to children  from infancy through 18 years of age.

To make an appointment, call 410-225-8780

Living Legacy Foundation Donates iPhones to Bridge Program to Help Domestic Violence Victims

Bridge Program members with Tiffiny of the Living Legacy Foundation, who facilitated the donation.

A phone is something many of us take for granted. However, to victims and survivors of domestic violence, a phone serves as their only connection to support and services to help break the cycle. Cell phones often are a target during the escalation of domestic violence, and unfortunately, cost is often a limiting factor in victim and survivor access to phones when a new one is needed.

To help provide this lifeline to those in need, employees at the Living Legacy Foundation donated 26 iPhones to The Bridge Program at the University of Maryland R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center.

The Bridge Program is a domestic violence intervention program that operates 24/7. Clinical team members across Shock Trauma, UMMC, and the campus of University of Maryland, Baltimore screen every incoming patient for domestic violence. If someone is flagged, the Bridge Program hotline is called and a case manager will appear at the bedside within an hour. The Bridge Program then helps each client over time by providing assessment, crisis intervention, advocacy, education and counseling along with linking patients to the best resources in his or her community.

Members of the Center for Injury Prevention and Policy with representaitons from the Living Legacy Foundation

Oftentimes, clients of the Bridge Program will also use pay as you go phones, which are often thrown away after the minutes are used up. This presents a problem for the Bridge Program team when trying to contact the client to assist and follow up.

“For our domestic violence survivors, their phones serve as a lifeline to everything that’s important to them,” Ann Myers, RN, Program Coordinator, said. “Anything, like these iPhones, that help us connect to our survivors goes a very long way towards helping more survivors.”

In FY2017, the Bridge Program assisted 368 domestic violence survivors.

For more information or to contact the Bridge Program, please call 410-328-9833.

Benefits of a Certified Athletic Trainer On & Off the Field

University of Maryland’s Department of Orthopaedics provides state-of-the-art sports medicine care to athletes and active individuals of all ages on and off the field. Our sports medicine physicians and orthopaedic residents work directly with many of the athletic trainers in Baltimore County, Howard County, and Baltimore City to ensure the same level of care offered to the University of Maryland Terp athletes.

Michael Smuda, MSAT, ATC, LAT is a certified atheltic trainer/physician extender with the University of Maryland Orthopaedics.  As fall sports are getting in full swing, he explains how an athletic trainer can keep athletes of all ages at their best.

 

 

Q: What is an Athletic Trainer (ATC) and what can they do?

A: An Athletic Trainer, or ATC, is a multi-skilled healthcare professional that provides medical services and treatment under the direction or collaboration of a physician within their state statutes. Treatments includes injury prevention, emergent care, clinical evaluation of injuries, therapeutic intervention, and rehabilitation of injuries and medical conditions.

Q: Where do Athletic Trainers work?

A: Athletic Trainers are currently working within several different settings.  They can be found working in educational institutions like high schools and colleges where they provide support for all of the student athletes at their respective institutions.  ATCs can also work along physicians in the clinical setting, acting as physician extenders to improve the efficiency and flow of clinic, as well as acting as patient liaisons managing post-operative care. They are also working with the military and with other first responders to help keep them safe on and off duty. Additionally, Athletic Trainers work with all professional sports teams and are also working within the performing arts.

University of Maryland Athletic Trainers, along with our physicians, currently serve as the official medical provider of the Terps, and support Howard County Public Schools’ sports teams, in addition to providing care in the clinical setting.

Q: Why are Athletic Trainers important?

A: Athletic Trainers are the ones who quickly respond to injuries on the field or in the workplace, and have the knowledge base to appropriately treat critical injuries.  ATCs develop rehab and injury prevention programs for athletes and weekend warriors to ensure proper movement mechanics and proper form during sport and activity. They are able to diagnosis concussions and know the steps to follow to get that person back to activity.

The American Academy of Pediatrics demonstrated that having an Athletic Trainer available for student athletes helped lower injury rates, provide more precise and accurate evaluations and proper return to play outlines for concussions and other injuries.

Q: Are Athletic Trainers and personal trainers the same thing?

A: No, Athletic Trainers and personal trainers are not the same role. An Athletic Trainer needs to graduate from an accredited Athletic Training program and take a board exam in order to treat patients. While there is some overlap with the sports performance aspect of each job, Athletic Trainers have a wider scope to their practice, and personal trainers are focused on improving physical fitness and wellness in the lay population.

For more information about University of Maryland Orthopaedics or to schedule an appointment, call 410-448-6400 or click here.

Setting Families Up for Breastfeeding Success

Every day, at 9 am and 9 pm, the nurses on the mother/baby unit at the University of Maryland Medical Center (UMMC) huddle for what they call the “Milk Minute.” They gather to exchange breastfeeding tips and other helpful information. This quick, daily training encourages communication between day and night shift staff, and keeps breastfeeding best practices top of mind.

Why the emphasis on breastfeeding? It can significantly reduce infant mortality rates, as well as childhood obesity and related chronic diseases in adulthood.

Based on research, staff has worked to modify practices in order to change the breastfeeding culture.  Why? Clinical practices and processes have evolved to promote success in infant/mom bonding and breastfeeding. This includes skin-to-skin contact, rooming in, and educating moms on baby’s feeding cues.

Here are some changes you may notice:

OLD WAY BABY-FRIENDLY WAY
Historically, it had been standard practice for newborns to receive a lot of their care in the nursery – away from their mothers. This practice unintentionally created a barrier to breastfeeding and newborn care education. Babies spend as much time as possible with their mothers. In fact, within five minutes of delivery, the infant is placed on the mother’s chest. After delivery, mom and baby are transferred to the mother-baby unit and room in together. Almost all of baby’s tests and procedures happen at the mother’s bedside.
OLD WAY BABY-FRIENDLY WAY
During daily rounds, the mother-baby care team used to bring all the babies into the nursery (away from their mothers) for assessment. If the babies cried, they would be given pacifiers. The care team visits each mother and baby in their hospital room and exams take place there with mom and other family members present. This process takes longer, but allows for better dialogue and education.
OLD WAY BABY-FRIENDLY WAY
All staff members had basic breastfeeding training. Lactation consultants were called in to visit breastfeeding mothers while in the hospital. All staff members have received additional education and are considered breastfeeding experts. They are equipped to provide moms with 24/7 breastfeeding education and support. Lactation consultants are still available for moms who need more intensive support.

New parents are often worried about whether their babies are getting enough to eat during breastfeeding. Staff use the picture chart below to help parents understand that newborns have tiny stomachs and that breastfeeding allows them to naturally stop eating when satisfied.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Breastfeeding success starts even before baby is born. Doctors discuss infant-feeding choices with moms-to-be during their prenatal care appointments. UMMC offers free breastfeeding classes for women receiving prenatal care at University of Maryland Redwood office, Penn St. office, Edmonson office, or Family Medicine. Once at the hospital for delivery, mothers continue learning about the benefits of breastfeeding from nurses.

A breastfeeding support group is also available so women have the opportunity to discuss any challenges they’re having with a breastfeeding expert. The support group meets every Thursday from noon to 1 pm at 29 S. Paca St. Moms can also get breastfeeding help by calling the UMMC Warmline at 410-328-3512 or emailing their questions to lactationsupport@umm.edu.

The Stork’s Nest, sponsored by the March of Dimes and Zeta Phi Beta, is a program that provides education to moms living in West Baltimore. Mothers are awarded points when they attend classes, attend prenatal care appointments and adopt healthy behaviors like breastfeeding. The points can be used toward baby items such as diapers, a playpen, a breast pump, and more.

Learn more about breastfeeding.

Shock Trauma’s Violence Intervention Specialists Help Break the Cycle and Change Lives After Violent Injury

It’s heard in the news cycle pretty often in Baltimore – the victim of a gunshot wound or stabbing is taken to Shock Trauma, where they survive their injuries.

However, it’s NOT often you hear about what happens to these survivors. How are they recovering from their injuries, mentally and emotionally? What are our teams doing to help them get access to resources to avoid violent injury again?

That’s where Leonard Spain and David Ross come in.  They’re both Violence Intervention Case Managers at the University of Maryland Shock Trauma Center.  Anytime someone suffers a violent injury and survives their injuries at Shock Trauma, they are seen by Spain and Ross.

Spain and Ross work to connect victims of violence with resources to get them on the path to success – including employment and schooling opportunities, mental health support, legal assistance and more.

Cut from the Same Cloth

Leonard Spain grew up in West Baltimore and, as a young man, was involved in the drug trade.

“The population that we serve – I was them. I sold drugs, I was a victim of gun violence and I spent time in prison,” Spain says.

That time in prison is what caused Spain to change his way of seeing things. When he arrived home, Spain realized the lack of resources available to help people like him get back on their feet.

He went to several career and job centers, attended job fairs and tried to do everything he could to stay out of trouble. After working a temp job for minimum wage for three years, Spain knew he wanted more for him and his daughter.

He enrolled at Sojourner Douglass College and received his Bachelor’s Degree in Human Services. He always knew he wanted to get into violence intervention and came to Shock Trauma after an internship with the Baltimore City Health Department.

When approaching patients at the beside, Spain focuses on building a relationship with patients as the first step of starting the case management process.

“I try to let them know I am just like them, just not out on the streets anymore,” Spain says. “Sometimes I gotta pull my shirt up and say ‘I got bullet holes just like you.’”

Poetry in Motion

Ross, also a Baltimore native, is a spoken word artist by trade.  He was discovered by the Shock Trauma team after performing at an anti-violence rally at Mondawmin Mall.

At first, Ross was a volunteer with the hospital with another friend.  By commission, he would come and talk with victims of violence and worked with the peer support group.  He then rose to his current position.

Now, when Ross learns of a new potential client, he will get background information on social media and online court records before meeting with them at the bedside.

“I’ll have that information in the back of my mind, but my next step is to speak and have a conversation with them and get their perspective,” Ross says.

Ross says he likes to ask the clients what they would like to gain from the situation and what they see as barriers.

“It’s not an easy thing to get them to trust you, and I understand that completely,” Ross says. “We’re usually asking them to change major aspects of their lives – and it definitely has to be broken down so we can work on one thing at a time.”

Usually, Ross starts with helping his clients get registered for health insurance so they can get their medication and get healthy. Next, they tackle employment. If it’s a criminal record holding the client back, they work to see if anything can be expunged. If it’s the lack of formal education, he works to get them in a GED class to receive a high school diploma at the least.

“I try to remove the obstacles to get them from point A to B,” Ross says. “Then, once we get them to point B, we see what other obstacles we can remove to get them to C.”

Spain and Ross both acknowledge that they are asking their clients to make massive life changes with not many resources, but overall, know it’s worth the trouble in the long run.

Spain is getting his Master’s in Conflict Resolution in University of Baltimore, and Ross is working towards his Master’s in Social Work at the University of Maryland, Baltimore.

Learn more about Shock Trauma Center’s for Injury Prevention and Policy.

Birthday Surprise Lifts Spirits of Long-Term Cardiovascular Patient

Team members celebrate with Mr. Boyd

When a hospital stay extends past six months, it can be hard to keep a patient thinking positively. Especially so on special days like birthdays. So, when Mr. Boyd, who has been in University of Maryland Medical Center’s in-patient Cardiac Progressive Care Unit for more than 250 days, had a birthday coming up, the unit staff knew they wanted to do something special.

The team planned a surprise birthday party for weeks, raising money amongst themselves for decorations, food, and of course, a birthday cake. They also invited Mr. Boyd’s friends and family to join in the party.

On the day of the surprise party, the interdisciplinary team decked out the conference room with tropical-themed décor. They even put together a photo booth area. Social worker Sarah Downs explains, “We put together a photo booth with props and a background. I brought a Polaroid camera to take instant photos so we can put together a scrapbook for Mr. Boyd with pages from each of the team members.”

The team came together to purchase more gifts for Mr. Boyd, including a foot pedal exercise bike and a tablet; items that will keep him busy and active while in the hospital.

Mr. Boyd enters the party completely surprised!

After all the planning, the only thing left was to get Mr. Boyd to the conference room without ruining the surprise. Under the ruse that they were taking him on a walk outside, unit nurses brought Mr. Boyd to the conference room. Upon seeing everyone gathered in the room decorated for his birthday, he was truly blown away, repeating, “They got me good, they all got me!”

After the initial surprise, Mr. Boyd took pictures with the care team and his friends and family. He remarked, “Thank you to the team. They are all really special to me.”

Then, he began to list and point to the team members that he feels close to, but it became clear that he would end up listing everyone in the room. The surprise was filled with emotion, but the scene quickly became that of a party with excited chatter, laughter, and friends enjoying each other’s company.

By throwing this surprise party, the Cardiac Progressive Care Unit far surpassed expectations for a patient they have formed a special bond with. As interim nurse manager Julie Landon puts it, “He has really become a part of the family.”

7 Things to Know About Glioblastoma

News recently shocked the nation that Sen. John McCain was diagnosed with an aggressive form of brain cancer called glioblastoma. Dr. Mark Mishra, a radiation oncologist at the University of Maryland Greenebaum Comprehensive Cancer Center and Maryland Proton Treatment Center who specializes in treating brain cancer, tells you 7 things to know about glioblastoma.

  1. How common is glioblastoma?

Glioblastoma is the most common type of primary brain tumor that is diagnosed in adults.  There are estimated to be nearly 13,000 patients who will be diagnosed with a glioblastoma annually within the United States.

  1. Why is it so aggressive?

Glioblastoma can be difficult to cure with radiation and chemotherapy.  In spite of surgery, radiation and chemotherapy, the tumor most commonly recurs within the same part of the brain where the tumor first started.

  1. What are the symptoms?

Symptoms can vary from patient to the patient, depending upon the size and location of the tumor.  Symptoms include persistent headaches and nausea, speech  and/or vision changes, confusion,  personality changes, or weakness in the arms or legs.

  1. How is it typically treated?

The optimal treatment for a glioblastoma is surgery, followed by 6 weeks of radiation delivered daily, Monday-Friday, with concurrent chemotherapy.  This is typically followed by additional chemotherapy, for at least 6 months.

  1. Has any progress been made in developing new treatments?

Prior to 2004, there was no effective chemotherapy to treat glioblastoma.  A large study conducted in Europe demonstrated improved cure rates when patients are treated with an oral chemotherapy drug (Temozolomide) during and after radiation therapy.  Most recently, a large study also demonstrated improved cure rates with the use of tumor-treating fields after completion of radiation therapy.

Due to the aggressive nature of glioblastoma, we are actively conducting clinical trials at the University of Maryland School of Medicine to better identify ways to improve cure rates and quality-of-life for patients with glioblastoma.

Current studies that are open at the University of Maryland School of Medicine include:

  • NRG-BN002: A study to evaluate the role of immunotherapy for patients with glioblastoma
  • NRG-BN001: A study to evaluate the benefit of high-dose radiation therapy with proton beam therapy compared to standard radiation for glioblastoma patients
  • 1224GCC: A study to evaluate the role of low-dose whole brain radiation for patients with a newly diagnosed glioblastoma
  • 1344GCC: A study to evaluate the role of tumor-treating fields, bevacizumab, and radiation for patients with a recurrent glioblastoma
  1. Is immunotherapy an option?

The benefit of immunotherapy for this diagnosis is still being evaluated in clinical trials.  We are currently conducting clinical trials to help better determine if this is an effective treatment for patients with a glioblastoma.

  1. What is the prognosis?

A patient’s prognosis can vary depending upon the patient’s age, ability to undergo and complete treatment, as well as molecular alterations within with the tumor.  The median survival time for patients with a glioblastoma who undergo treatment ranges from 15-20 months.  Ten percent of patients will survive five years after diagnosis.

Learn more about the University of Maryland Brain Tumor Treatment and Research Center.